乐闻培训课程

托福5人班 托福15人班 SAT课程 学员评价 网络课程 VIP课程

携尔留学服务

研究生全程 本科全程 转学 Summer School

《文勇的新托福写作手稿》

作者:刘文勇
出版社:中国人民大学出版社
出版时间:2015-7-14
页数:388页
书号:9787300210254
未经授权允许,不得转载本书,违者追究法律责任
如果您喜欢本书,烦请购买正版图书,支持我们


第六章--如何应对托福考试(37)

编辑:share 来源: 美联乐闻 发布时间:2016-06-16

文章摘要: 本文乐闻小编继续为大家整理了《文勇的新托福写作手稿》中的内容,此为第六章--如何应对托福考试;本文主要介绍了因果关系陈述型独立写作。
d. 因果关系陈述型

此类题目的特点是命题的陈述中包含明显的或暗含的“因果关系”。因果关系构成的话题一旦出现,最好选择反对,因为我们去反驳一个因果关系成立远比去解释一个因果关系成立容易得多,写出来的文章也会更好。而针对此类题目,我们一般可以遵循两个固定的反驳路径:

1.A is not necessarily the reason of B.

2.B is not necessarily the result of A.

在写作时,既可以选择其中一个路径写,也可以选择两个路径,同时从两个方面展开文章。针对题目“Advertisements are a waste of money and time of a company because consumers know what they want to buy广告浪费公司的时间和资金(结果,用B表示),因为消费者知道他们想要买什么(原因,用A表示)”,我们从“A不一定会导致B”这个路径着手,即,因为就算消费者知道自己想要买什么,很多人在看了广告之后,也会临时做出购买的决定等,所以最终公司在广告上花费的时间和资金并不能算是浪费,这样,文章会比较好写。

接下来,看一个更为典型的题目,其范文是分别从两个路径着手展开的。

题目:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

托福185题库008

这个题目很典型,虽然题目中没有出现表示因果关系的词语,但我们可以构造出因果关系。有三个点:1.spend too much time on watching television,所以2.spend much less time on communicating with friends and family,所以3. destroyed communication among friends and family,这是题目暗含的内容,如果你把题目摆成这样子,就摆成了因果关系的情况,这个就叫做构造因果关系法。

文章:

As an old saying goes, every coin has two sides. Likewise, television has both its advantages and disadvantages. Spending too much time sitting alone in front of TV and therefore leaving little time for communication is its potential harm faced by everyone. Yet it is too hasty to reach a conclusion that television has destroyed communication among friends and family.

On the one hand, watching TV is not necessarily the reasonfor the failure of communication. To my thinking, the most important factor influencing communication should be the people involved.Personality plays an important part in this. A sociable and extroverted person will always cherish the time spent with other people, either friends or family, and even acquaintances; to ask him sit alone in front of TV too long is like to lift a fish out of water: both are against their nature and would be unpleasant. In a similar fashion, an anti-social and introverted person will not communicate more even when they are surrounded by a lot of people. If the people involved are against accompaniment, they will always find a way to avoid communication. Even if there is no TV, there are bound to be other distractions, being computers, books, radios or other devices.

On the other hand, TV doesn’t necessarily lead to the decreasing of communication.On the contrary, it may sometimes enhance communication by providing people with more common information to share and to discuss. Adidas’s famous catchword “Impossible is Nothing” is widely used when people want to encourage themselves or their friends. TV series are always the center of people’s conversation especially when they are first being shown. Two housewives can talk about some advertisements broadcasted on TV when they decide to buy some extra furniture. If you want, TV can always offer you some information to start a conversation.

To summarize, I truly don’t think that TV has destroyed communication between friends and family.

乐闻携尔学生习作课后修改版本

本篇范文中同时用到了我们提到的两种路径。第二段的中心思想是“与朋友和家人之间缺乏交流并不一定是看电视造成的”,即“A不一定是B的原因”,性格内向的人即使不看电视,与他人的交流也不会太多,并且即使没有电视、电脑、书籍、收音机等也会造成交流的减少;第三段的中心思想是“看电视也不一定会造成与朋友和家人之间交流的减少”,即“B不一定是A的结果”。相反,看电视能够为人们提供谈论的话题,在某种程度上能促进人们之间的交流。

这篇文章的题目和写法都很典型,希望大家可以仔细看过后,能够基本掌握这种思路。当然其他的写法也是可以的,但是如果思路堵塞,不知该如何下手时,不妨尝试上述方法。

下面这个题目可供同学们练习 :

Competition with friends usually has negative effects on friendship.(朋友间的竞争常对友谊产生负面影响。2010.11.5)

下一篇:第六章--如何应对托福考试(38)

返回列表:《文勇的新托福写作手稿》

上一篇:第六章--如何应对托福考试(36)

本文来自书籍《文勇的新托福写作手稿》

未经授权允许,不得转载本书,违者追究法律责任

如果您喜欢本书,烦请购买正版图书,支持我们

分享到:

我要报名

> 查看更多
  • 班级
  • 开课时间
  • 详细介绍

最新专题

> 查看更多
  • summer school
  • 美国留学申请

在线客服

托福五人班

托福15人班

托福名师1对1

雅思精英班

名校留学

SummerSchool

全国咨询热线


010-5338 2562

网站首页|美联出国考试|美联乐闻|媒体报道|关于我们|版权声明|师资团队|网站地图|诚聘人才|资料下载|图书出版|联系我们

美联乐闻地址:北京市海淀区苏州街18号长远天地大厦A1座1606(地铁10号线苏州街站C出口即是)
全国免费咨询电话:010-5338 2562
@2013乐闻携尔 京ICP备11037519号 
本站版权归 深圳美联国际教育科技有限公司 所有
美联乐闻留学是一家专业托福培训美国留学申请的机构

 美联乐闻官方微博二维码
关注美联乐闻官方微博
或扫描二维码,关注美联乐闻留学微信
即可获得最新留学资讯和优惠信息
更有价值600元的留学评估和留学书籍免费送