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新托福TPO34阅读原文(一):Islamic Art and the Book

编辑:乐闻携尔 来源: 乐闻携尔 发布时间:2016-06-16

文章摘要: 乐闻携尔为考生们整理了新托福TPO阅读原文,供大家参考。本文是新托福TPO34第一篇文章的原文,新托福TPO34阅读原文(一):Islamic Art and the Book(伊斯兰艺术和书籍)。

新托福TPO34阅读原文(一):Islamic Art and the Book。《文勇新托福黄金阅读真题》文章全部来源于ETS考试中心官方推出的托福TPO阅读,目前已经更新到TPO48。乐闻携尔为考生们整理了新托福TPO阅读原文,供大家参考。本文是新托福TPO34第一篇文章的原文,新托福TPO34阅读原文(一):Islamic Art and the Book(伊斯兰艺术和书籍)。

TPO34-1:Islamic Art and the Book

The arts of the Islamic book, such as calligraphy and decorative drawing, developed during A.D. 900 to 1500, and luxury books are some of the most characteristic examples of Islamic art produced in this period. This came about from two major developments: paper became common, replacing parchment as the major medium for writing, and rounded scripts were regularized and perfected so that they replaced the angular scripts of the previous period, which because of their angularity were uneven in height. Books became major vehicles for artistic expression, and the artists who produced them, notably calligraphers and painters, enjoyed high status, and their workshops were often sponsored by princes and their courts. Before A.D. 900, manuscripts of the Koran (the book containing the teachings of the Islamic religion) seem to have been the most common type of book produced and decorated, but after that date a wide range of books were produced for a broad spectrum of patrons. These continued to include, of course, manuscripts of the Koran, which every Muslim wanted to read, but scientific works, histories, romances, and epic and lyric poetry were also copied in fine handwriting and decorated with beautiful illustrations. Most were made for sale on the open market, and cities boasted special souks (markets) where books were bought and sold. The mosque of Marrakech in Morocco is known as the Kutubiyya, or Booksellers’ Mosque, after the adjacent market. Some of the most luxurious books were specific commissions made at the order of a particular prince and signed by the calligrapher and decorator.

Papermaking had been introduced to the Islamic lands from China in the eighth century. It has been said that Chinese papermakers were among the prisoners captured in a battle fought near Samarqand between the Chinese and the Muslims in 751, and the technique of papermaking - in which cellulose pulp extracted from any of several plants is first suspended in water, caught on a fine screen, and then dried into flexible sheets - slowly spread westward. Within fifty years, the government in Baghdad was using paper for documents. Writing in ink on paper, unlike parchment, could not easily be erased, and therefore paper had the advantage that it was difficult to alter what was written on it. Papermaking spread quickly to Egypt - and eventually to Sicily and Spain - but it was several centuries before paper supplanted parchment for copies of the Koran, probably because of the conservative nature of religious art and its practitioners. In western Islamic lands, parchment continued to be used for manuscripts of the Koran throughout this period.

The introduction of paper spurred a conceptual revolution whose consequences have barely been explored. Although paper was never as cheap as it has become today, it was far less expensive than parchment, and therefore more people could afford to buy books, Paper is thinner than parchment, so more pages could be enclosed within a single volume. At first, paper was made in relatively small sheets that were pasted together, but by the beginning of the fourteenth century, very large sheets - as much as a meter across - were available.

These large sheets meant that calligraphers and artists had more space on which to work. Paintings became more complicated, giving the artist greater opportunities to depict space or emotion. The increased availability of paper, particularly after 1250, encouraged people to develop systems of representation, such as architectural plans and drawings. This in turn allowed the easy transfer of artistic ideas and motifs over great distances from one medium to another, and in a different scale in ways that had been difficult, if not impossible, in the previous period.Rounded styles of Arabic handwriting had long been used for correspondence and documents alongside the formal angular scripts used for inscriptions and manuscripts of the Koran. Around the year 900, Ibn Muqla, who was a secretary and vizier at the Abbasid court in Baghdad, developed a system of proportioned writing. He standardized the length of alif, the first letter of the Arabic alphabet, and then determined what the size and shape of all other letters should be, based on the alif. Eventually, six round forms of handwriting, composed of three pairs of big and little scripts known collectively as the Six Pens, became the standard repertory of every calligrapher.





这些大型纸张意味着书法家和艺术家有更多的创作空间。绘画变得更复杂,艺术家有更多机会去描绘空间表达情感。特别是在1250年以后,纸张可用性增加鼓励人们发展了模型系统,比如说建筑平面图和绘画。这反过来使得艺术思想和理念更容易从一种媒介跨越远距离转移到另外一种媒介。而在这之前,艺术思想和理念的传播,如果有可能的话,其规模和方式也远远不及现在。这一时期,通信和文件中使用阿拉伯书法的圆形风格,而碑文及古兰经手稿中则使用正式楷体。大约在900年,伊本穆格来,巴格达阿巴斯法院的秘书和大臣,发明了一套匀称的书写体系。他规范了alif(阿拉伯字母表的第一个字母)的长度,然后在alif长度的基础上,确定了所有其他字母的大小和形状。最终,书写的六个圆形符号,包括三组大小写法,伊本穆格来被称为Six Pens,成为了每个书法家的标准配置。






新托福TPO34阅读原文(二):The Development of Steam Power

新托福TPO34阅读原文(三):Protection of Plants by Insects






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