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新托福TPO41阅读原文(一):Navajo Art纳瓦霍人的艺术

编辑:share 来源: 美联乐闻 发布时间:2016-06-21

文章摘要: 美联乐闻为考生们整理了新托福TPO阅读原文和译文,供大家参考。本文是新托福TPO41第一篇文章的原文,新托福TPO41阅读原文(一):Navajo Art(纳瓦霍人的艺术)。

新托福TPO41阅读原文(一):Navajo Art。《文勇新托福黄金阅读真题》文章全部来源于ETS考试中心官方推出的托福TPO阅读,美联乐闻为考生们整理了新托福TPO阅读原文和译文,供大家参考。本文是新托福TPO41第一篇文章的原文,新托福TPO41阅读原文(一):Navajo Art(纳瓦霍人的艺术)。

TPO41-1:Navajo Art

The Navajo, a Native American people living in the southwestern United States, live in small scattered settlements. In many respects, such as education, occupation, and leisure activities, their life is like that of other groups that contribute to the diverse social fabric of North American culture in the twenty-first century. At the same time, they have retained some traditional cultural practices that are associated with particular art forms. For example, the most important traditional Navajo rituals include the production of large floor paintings. These are actually made by pouring thin, finely controlled streams of colored sands or pulverized vegetable and mineral substances, pollen, and flowers in precise patterns on the ground. The largest of these paintings may be up to 5.5 meters in diameter and cover the entire floor of a room. Working from the inside of the design outward, the Navajo artist and his assistants will sift the black, white, bluish-gray, orange, and red materials through their fingers to create the finely detailed imagery. ■ The paintings and chants used in the ceremonies are directed by well-trained artists and singers who enlist the aid of spirits who are impersonated by masked performers. ■ The twenty-four known Navajo chants can be represented by up to 500 sand paintings. ■These complex paintings serve as memory aids to guide the singers during the performance of the ritual songs, which can last up to nine days.■

The purpose and meaning of the sand paintings can be explained by examining one of the most basic ideals of Navajo society, embodied in their word hozho (beauty or harmony, goodness, and happiness). It coexists with hochxo ("ugliness," or "evil," and "disorder") in a world where opposing forces of dynamism and stability create constant change. When the world, which was created in beauty, becomes ugly and disorderly, the Navajo gather to perform rituals with songs and make sand paintings to restore beauty and harmony to the world. Some illness is itself regarded as a type of disharmony. Thus, the restoration of harmony through a ceremony can be part of a curing process.

Men make sand paintings that are accurate copies of paintings from the past. The songs sung over the paintings are also faithful renditions of songs from the past. By recreating these arts, which reflect the original beauty of creation, the Navajo bring beauty to the present world. As relative newcomers to the Southwest, a place where their climate, neighbors, and rulers could be equally inhospitable, the Navajo created these art forms to affect the world around them, not just through the recounting of the actions symbolized, but through the beauty and harmony of the artworks themselves. The paintings generally illustrate ideas and events from the life of a mythical hero, who, after being healed by the gods, gave gifts of songs and paintings. Working from memory, the artists re-create the traditional form of the image as accurately as possible.

The Navajo are also world-famous for the designs on their woven blankets. Navajo women own the family flocks, control the shearing of the sheep, the carding, the spinning, and dying of the thread, and the weaving of the fabrics. While the men who make faithful copies of sand paintings from the past represent the principle of stability in Navajo thought, women embody dynamism and create new designs for every weaving they make. Weaving is a paradigm of the creativity of a mythic ancestor named Spider, woman who wove the universe as a cosmic web that united earth and sky. It was she who, according to legend, taught Navajo women how to weave. As they prepare their materials and weave, Navajo women imitate the transformations that originally created the world.

Working on their looms, Navajo weavers create images through which they experience harmony with nature. It is their means of creating beauty and thereby contributing to the beauty, harmony, and healing of the world. Thus, weaving is a way of seeing the world and being part of it.

TPO41-1译文:纳瓦霍人的艺术

与哺乳动物和鸟类相比,两栖类动物不能通过自身的代谢活动产生热能,这使得它们可以调节自身体温而不受周围环境温度的限制。然而,两栖类动物不能控制自己体温的说法已被证明是假的,因为它们的体温并不总是与周围环境的温度一致。尽管两栖类动物调节体温的能力差,但是还是有一定的控制能力的。

生理适应性可以帮助两栖动物在条件极端的栖息地生存。体温的耐受范围代表着一个物种可以生存的温度范围。当温度降到零下2°C时,北美蝾螈依然活跃;而即使温度上升到41°C——这是自由生长的两栖动物的最高体温,南美洲青蛙依然感觉舒适。最近证实,一些北美的青蛙和蟾蜍物种可以在体温零下6°C的情况下生存五天,而它们约三分之一的体液会冻结。其他组织会得到保护,因为它们含有抗冻保护剂甘油或葡萄糖。此外,有许多物种的容忍范围是多变的,可以为了适应环境而变化(长期暴露于特定的条件)。

在白天的高温下仍可以暴露在太阳下的青蛙物种在皮肤结构上有一些有趣的变化,这些变化是形态上的适应。大多数两栖动物的皮肤是完全透水性的,因此不能阻挡蒸发或太阳辐射。在非洲大草原的青蛙hyperolius viridiflavus皮肤中储存有鸟嘌呤晶体,这使它能够更好地反射太阳辐射,从而在过热时提供保护。树蛙phyllomedusa sauvagei的腺分泌物在其整个身体布满一层油脂薄膜以对抗水分蒸发,从而帮助防止出现干燥(脱水)。

然而,行为调节是迄今为止在体温调节中最重要的因素。行为温度调节主要包括晒太阳(日光浴),与岩石或土壤之类的基质的热交换(接触热源),以及每天或每年的躲避行为,这包括转移到遮蔽处去乘凉、冬眠或夏眠(分别在寒冷或炙热的天气减少活动)。日光浴在青蛙和蟾蜍中特别常见:这样它们能将自己的体温提高超过10°C。安第斯蟾蜍bufo spinulosus在太阳从潮湿的地面上升起后迅速出现,并以此方式达到想要的体温,而那时候地面或空气还没那么温暖。这种方法的一个积极的副作用是,它加速了夜间食用的猎物的消化,从而加速蟾蜍的生长。接触热源是会出现在大多数两栖动物中的行为,虽然压在地上有双重目的:通过热量传输来吸热,以及通过皮肤吸收水。对在安第斯蟾蜍来说,接触热源在降雨效果尤其明显:体温与温度较高的地面而不是温度较低的空气一致。

生理和形态的适应不足以维持生存温度时,就会产生躲避行为。对高环境温度容忍性差的两栖动物会选择夜间活动,这就是一个典型的躲避行为。季节性躲避行为在许多两栖类动物中极为重要。栖息地在温带地区的物种在冬季会面临致命的低温,而半干旱地区的物种在夏季会暴露于干燥、炎热的环境中。

两栖动物冬眠发生在泥或没有霜冻的深洞。比利牛斯山脉以北的黄条蟾蜍冬眠便是一个很好的例子:它们挖向沙地的深处,在深入度过冬季。相反,西班牙南部的黄条蟾蜍在该地区常见的暖冬依然活跃,但却不得不在干燥炎热的夏季夏眠。这种夏眠也是要挖到地下或躲到凉爽幽深的岩体裂隙中来避免干燥和高温。因此,两栖类动物是很难受环境温度影响的,因为通过上述机制它们会控制自身的体温。

对这篇阅读原文在句子理解、语法方面存在问题,或者想要看文章题目和答案,均可咨询你的专属托福名师

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新托福TPO41阅读原文(二):Climate of Venus

新托福TPO41阅读原文(三):Trade and Early State Formation

 

拓展阅读

新托福TPO(1-48)阅读原文汇总

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